1932 Ottawa Agreement On Imperial Preference

Imperial Preference was a system of tariffs or free trade agreements between the constituent entities of the British Empire. [1] As a Commonwealth Preference, the proposal was then revived with respect to members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Joseph Chamberlain, the powerful colonial secretary from 1895 to 1903, vigorously argued that Britain could compete with its expanding industrial rivals (mainly the United States and Germany) and thus retain the status of a great power. The best way to do this would be to strengthen domestic trade within the World British Empire, with a focus on the more developed regions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, which attracted large numbers of British settlers. [2] Brexit has attracted interest from trade deals between the UK and the Commonwealth. [9] The Italian Empire, Spain, Portugal, France, Japan and the United States all had different preferences between their continent and their colonies. Steven E. Lobell: „Second Image Reversed Politics: Britain`s Choice of Freer Trade or Imperial Preferences, 1903-1906, 1917-1923, 1930-1932.“ International Studies Quarterly 43 (1999): 671-694. The British Empire Economic Conference (also known as the Imperial Economic Conference) was a conference of British colonies and autonomous dominations held in 1932 to discuss the Great Depression.

It took place in Ottawa from July 21 to August 20. I am therefore in a position to use this reciprocal variation in the application of preference to determine whether the Preferential and Reciprocal Trade Act has led to an intra-European reorientation of New Zealand imports. Brexit has rekindled economists` interest in the British Empire and its current successor, the Commonwealth. Some speculate that the Commonwealth could be useful in negotiating preferential and even free trade agreements to cushion the shock of the UK`s exit from the EU customs union. Imperial preference in the interwar period has been the subject of much research. According to de Bromhead et al. (2017), Britain`s imperial preference for the 1932 Ottawa Accords accounted for the bulk of the increase in the empire`s share of British imports between 1930 (27%) 1935 (39%). A precondition for the adoption of imperial preference by Great Britain was the abandonment of free trade (most often) after the Import Duties Act of 1932. Until then, the traditional free trade policy meant that there was no room for manoeuvre to extend preferential tariffs to imports from the Empire.

The law was passed during a period of imperial fervor. In Britain, Joseph Chamberlain committed to customs reform, including the abandonment of free trade and the implementation of imperial preferences. In 1903, New Zealand made an imperial preference, knowing that it could soon be replicated by a protectionist metropolis, whereas this was only the case in the 1930s. By radically changing customs policy in 1931 and 1932, the United Kingdom lifted the ban on taxing food imports, paving the way for a systematic policy of imperial preference. Such a policy, based on the principle of „producers of origin, producers of empires as second and last foreign producers,“ was negotiated in 1932 at the Imperial Economic Conference in Ottawa and took the form of a series of bilateral agreements that were to be extended by five years (without formal renewals, they expire after 1937). Tags: United Kingdom, British Empire, Imperial Preference, New Zealand, Trade Agreements, Tariffs, Free Trade, the results of Brexit research on the impact or absence of Edwardian imperial preference, are inconsistent. The accepted account of imperial preferences cites the growing value of British exports to the Dominions as evidence of the effectiveness of Edwardian imperial preference (Russell 1947). More recently, however, Magee and Thompson (2010) argued that imperial preference did not include an intra-imperial diversion of British exports, noting that an indication of the „unveiled benefit“ of Great Britain