Many hoped that the Lisbon Treaty would stimulate deepening the EU, but the long battle for ratification of the treaty and the upsetting effects of the financial crisis have shown little appetite for further institutional change. As has already been said, there is little public appetite for „more Europe“ and national politicians seem increasingly reluctant to advocate for a strong European Union. Germany is the most striking example – once the strongest advocate of closer integration, it has entered the camp of skeptics, not least because of public doubts about the euro, which is also reflected in the Supreme Court rulings. However, some experts and politicians, such as Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France, and Guy Verhofstad, former Belgian Prime Minister and current President of the Liberals in the European Parliament, argue that the best response to the crisis is indeed a radical step towards a form of economic governance in Europe. They believe that the weakness of the euro area`s central institutions and the lack of regulation of its financial and energy markets are seriously hampering the EU. Unfortunately, the recommendations of Sarkozy and Verhofstad met with a lukewarm reaction from Germany and other Member States. Ohlin, B. G. (1933). Inter-regional and international trade. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. With regard to the compilation of the values for the trade effects of three alternative Brexit anti-counterfeiting scenarios (hard Brexit, hard Brexit plus global Britain), the results indicate that the UK`s trade with the three groups of countries (eu, free trade agreements and regional EPAs) would fall considerably by about a third.
On the other hand, trade with the rest of the world would increase by almost half. Overall, the UK`s bilateral trade with all countries under hard Brexit and hard Brexit Plus scenarios would fall by 6% and 13% respectively, but these losses are partly due to the UK`s overall strategy (5%) balance. However, there are serious reservations about Britain`s overall strategy. From the EU`s point of view, the three scenarios are based on only minimal variation in percentage of bilateral trade, indicating an asymmetry of the effect. Stack, M.M., Bliss, M. EU Economic Integration Agreements, Brexit and Trade. Rev World Econ 156, 443-473 (2020). doi.org/10.1007/s10290-020-00379-x`regional integration is a process in which neighbouring countries reach an agreement to improve cooperation through common institutions and rules. The objectives of the agreement could range from economics to environmental objectives to policies, although it has generally taken the form of a political economic initiative focused on commercial interests in order to achieve broader social and security policy objectives, as defined by national governments.
Regional integration was organized either by supranational institutional structures, intergovernmental decision-making or a combination of the two. Rolf J. Langhammer and Suthiphand Chirathivat discuss ASEAN strategies and the EU challenge through the „Divide and Rule“ of the United States and China: evidence and possible reactions. The United States and China, both global superpowers, have launched attacks on the coherence of ASEAN and the EU by offering privileges to certain Member States if they deviate from the common policy of the two integration programmes.